⚫ and ⚫⚫ makes ⚫⚫⚫ (physical quantity)

1 + 2 = 3 (human number)

each of the ‘equations’ describes the same relationship; each is based on the same principles

each expresses inviolable laws which govern the combination of identical entities into groups

natural numbers are physical constants


archive of research documenting the connections between number theory and physics, showing that the connections are






Peter Woit, University of Columbia, ‘Towards a Grand Unified Theory of Mathematics and Physics’.

A paper which outlines some of the already established connections between number theory and physics, acknowledges that there are as yet no satisfactory explanations for these connections, and concludes it is an area which deserves much more attention.

maths is so useful for physics because it’s developed from the same fundamental principles which govern the physical universe

early humans didn’t invent systems of number, then discover they were useful for measuring and quantifying the physical world

early humans developed systems of number from observation of how the physical world is naturally organised: counting systems are based on measuring and comparing the physical properties of different groups of the same or equivalent physical objects

for *any* type of equivalent physical objects

the quantity we call 1
put with the quantity we call 2
creates the quantity we call 3

this is a physical absolute, according to the law of conservation of energy

numbers and numerical relationships are not merely abstract concepts, they are developed from the same fundamental principles as physical laws

If we think intelligent aliens would develop a counting system and have knowledge of the natural number sequence, then we acknowledge that the natural number sequence describes natural laws of quantity:

A rigorous counting system is, by definition, physics.

There is, without any possible doubt, a single entity of Existence which encompasses everything which exists.

Existence = 1

From this, it is inevitable that the natural laws are emergent properties of the increasing mathematical complexity of the sequence 1 = N(1/N).

Max Tegmark, Garrett Lisi and others have proposed theories of everything that rest on the premise that physical reality is governed by natural laws which are naturally mathematical.

Historically there have been many discoveries of connections between patterns found in purely mathematical models and naturally occurring physical phenomena observed in the universe. More subtle connections between number theory and physics are being discovered. They’re directly related.

The law of conservation of energy states:  the total energy of an isolated system is conserved.

That is, that the total energy of a system must be constant over time;

The energy must always add up to the same amount no matter how it is distributed within the system;

1 + 1 = 2

1 + 2 = 3

and so on.

In fact a rigorous counting system is by definition, physics.

The mathematical equation 1/2 + 1/2 = 1 describes a mathematical law of quantitative relationships. It also describes a physical absolute, according to the law of conservation of energy. It describes, mathematically, the law of conservation of energy. Numbers and numerical relationships are not merely abstract concepts, they are developed from the same fundamental principles as physical laws. This is not insignificant, it suggests that the physical universe developed according to natural constraints which are purely mathematical.

The theory of everything set out on this site explains from first principles, precisely this.

the properties of the elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics may be inferred by studying the largest cosmic structures

Why Is Space 3-Dimensional?

“The Helmholtz free energy density (f) reaches its maximum value at a temperature T = 0.93, which occurs when space had n = 3 dimensions”

From phys.org


1 = 1/2 + 1/2



Pedro L. e S. Lopes, Jeffrey C. Y. Teo, and Shinsei Ryu, ‘Topological strings linking with quasiparticle exchange in superconducting Dirac semimetals‘, Physical Review B, 95, 235134, (https://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.235134)


“We demonstrate a topological classification of vortices in three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductors based on superconducting Dirac semimetals with an s-wave superconducting order parameter by means of a pair of numbers (NΦ,N), accounting how many units NΦ of magnetic fluxes hc/4e and how many Nchiral Majorana modes the vortex carries. From these quantities, we introduce a topological invariant, which further classifies the properties of such vortices under linking processes. While such processes are known to be related to instanton processes in a field theoretic description, we demonstrate here that they are, in fact, also equivalent to the fractional Josephson effect on junctions based at the edges of quantum spin Hall systems. This allows one to consider microscopically the effects of interactions in the linking problem. We therefore demonstrate that associated to links between vortices, one has the exchange of quasiparticles, either Majorana zero modes, or e/2quasiparticles, which allows for a topological classification of vortices in these systems, seen to be Z8 classified. While NΦ and N are shown to be both even or odd in the weakly interacting limit, in the strongly interacting scenario one loosens this constraint. In this case, one may have further fractionalization possibilities for the vortices, whose excitations are described by SO(3)3-like conformal field theories with quasiparticle exchanges of more exotic types”.